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While some employers are determined to hire young workers, many smart business owners and managers have noticed older individuals have work skills and habits that make them especially valuable in the workplace.

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The percentage of older employees in the U.S. workforce is increasing. In the ten-year period ending in 2016, the Bureau of Labor Statistics projects the number of those in the workforce age 55 to 64 will rise by 36.5%. For those over 65, the projected rise is at least a whopping 83%.

As the percentage of younger workers continues to shrink, it becomes even more important for employers to consider how they can attract and retain mature employees who have the skills needed. Given the changing demographic of the workforce, this is true regardless of the economy.

To help employers achieve the goal of attracting and keeping older employees, the AARP released what the association calls the "Employer Best Practices for Mature Workers." This report is based primarily on an extensive review of the applications submitted by the 35 winning companies named in recent years as "AARP Best Employers for Workers Over 50."

These Best Practices firms include 12 hospitals, four financial services firms, and three insurers. Among the 35 winning firms are Deere & Company, Lincoln Financial Group, Minnesota Life, New York University Medical Center, Pitney Bowes, Principal Financial Group, Sonoco, Volkswagen of America, West Virginia University Hospitals and Zurich North America.

From the AARP study, here are nine "Best Practices for Mature Workers" revealed by the AARP study:

  • 1. Have a self-nomination process for job openings for career movement. Encourage employees to seek advancement and special assignments. Also, encourage managers to seek out opportunities with employees as part of the annual performance review process.

    2. Offer a phased retirement option. For example, allow employees to collect their full retirement benefits while continuing to work part-time or reduced hours while also allowing health and ancillary benefits. 

    Allow long-tenured and older employees to stagger or reduce their work hours, even to part-time or per-diem status, without jeopardizing benefits otherwise not available to part-time employees.

    3. Rehire retirees as temporary and replacement employees. Provide retirees with re-entry training and flexible schedules.

    4. Establish pools of retirees who can be called in times of increased labor demand.

    5. Give mature employees individual accommodations. Some examples:

    • The Principal Financial Group purchased a magni-cam to help an employee who developed vision difficulties. This way the employee, placing paper documents under a camera, could view them on a TV monitor.

    • Pitney Bowes retrained a mature employee who developed a chronic heart condition. The employee, previously in a strenuous job, transitioned to a less strenuous job that required computer skills.

    • At Adecco Employment Services, Melville, NY, a blind IT Help Desk Analyst got help to perform his job. The help included special hardware and software, and a workstation large enough to accommodate his dog. A buddy system helped the employee navigate through the building.

    6. Partner with local educational institutions. Bring classrooms into the workplace to make it convenient for current employees to receive training and upgrade their skills.

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7. Commit to a Lifelong Learning policy. Not only encourage employees to continue their learning, but actually hold them accountable for upgrading their knowledge and skills throughout their careers.

8. Have a job-sharing program.Allow employees who want to work part-time or fewer hours to share the same job.

9. Have a Flexible Spending Account program for employees. Allow employees to put away money for elder care, pretax. 

Example: Volkswagen of America allows employees to allocate $5,000 in pretax earnings to a Flexible Spending Account.



If rising health care costs have sent your company searching for ways to reduce expenses, you should know there are alternatives to standard medical insurance plans. Your choices are not limited to either paying the higher costs yourself or transferring the burden to your employees. Tax-advantaged strategies are available which can mitigate the effect of rising costs for you and your staff members. Here are three ideas to consider.

1. Establish a Health Insurance Premium-Only Plan (POP) 

This super-simple option is often a good choice for small employers. With a POP, your employees are charged via payroll withholding for their share of health premiums. These withholdings are considered salary reductions for federal income tax, Social Security tax, and Medicare tax purposes. In other words, the POP allows your employees to pay their share of health insurance premiums with pretax dollars, which can save them a substantial amount of taxes over the course of a year. 

At the same time, your company's taxes are also reduced. Reason: the salary reduction amounts are exempt from the employer's share of Social Security tax and Medicare tax. For 2019, the employer's share of these taxes is 7.65% of the first $132,900 of each employee's salary, including bonuses, plus 1.45% of compensation above $132,900 (up from $128,400 for 2018). Individuals with earned income above $200,000 or married couples with earned income above $250,000 must also pay an additional 0.9% in Medicare tax (no limit).  

Because a POP is considered a "cafeteria benefit plan," it's governed by Section 125 of the Internal Revenue Code. This means your business will need to install a written plan and employee enrollment procedures when setting up the program. The POP cannot discriminate in favor of highly compensated employees or key employees. Despite these restrictions, it's generally easy and inexpensive to establish a POP with professional help. 

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Basic cost-reduction strategy:First, shift a higher percentage of premiums for employee health coverage to your employees. This reduces your company's costs. Then set up a POP to give your employees an offsetting benefit in the form of reduced income tax, Social Security tax, and Medicare tax. The same strategy also cuts the company's tab for Social Security and Medicare taxes.

2. Set Up a Flexible Spending Account Plan

Setting up and operating a Flexible Spending Account (FSA) is more complicated than the POP option. Therefore, these plans are probably best suited to businesses with a larger number of employees. 

Here's how FSAs work: Your company sets up a health care flexible spending account for each participating employee. Then, the employee makes an annual election to contribute a specified dollar amount of his or her salary to the FSA and these contributions are withheld from the employee's paychecks. To be reimbursed, the employee submits a claim for his or her share of health insurance premiums and uninsured medical expenses (up to the annual amount contributed to the FSA). The reimbursements are tax-free to the employee.

Employee FSA contributions are considered salary reductions, which means they are exempt from federal income tax, Social Security tax, and Medicare tax. So they allow your employees to pay out-of-pocket medical expenses (including their share of health premiums) with pretax dollars. Your company's taxes are also reduced, because the salary reduction amounts are exempt from the employer's share of Social Security and Medicare taxes.

Like POPs, FSA plans are considered "cafeteria benefit plans" under Section 125 of the Internal Revenue Code. Therefore, your business will need to install a written plan and employee enrollment procedures. The plan cannot discriminate in favor of highly compensated employees or key employees. An FSA plan also requires significant administrative effort to enroll employees, handle the necessary payroll withholding, and process reimbursement claims. Many companies find it cost-effective to hire a third-party plan administrator to take care of all the details. 

Finally, many companies place an annual lid on the amount an employee can contribute to the health care FSA. This is important, because employees can request reimbursement for expenses up to their annual contribution long before the contributions have actually been collected through the payroll withholding. Under the Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act (PPACA), the limit is $2,700 for 2019 ($2,650 for 2018). This limit will be adjusted for inflation in subsequent years.

Basic cost-reduction strategy: First, shift a higher percentage of employee health premiums to your employees, or increase the insurance plan deductibles. Or take both actions. Your company's costs will be reduced. Then, set up an FSA plan to give your employees an offsetting benefit in the form of reduced income, Social Security, and Medicare taxes. The FSA also cuts the company's Social Security and Medicare tax bills.

3. Install a Health Reimbursement Arrangement (HRA)

The option to set up an HRA can be attractive to larger employers. Here's how it works: Every year, the company agrees to contribute a fixed amount to each eligible employee's account. Employee contributions are not allowed. The company deducts the HRA pay-ins. However, the contributions are tax-free to employees (no federal income tax, Social Security tax, or Medicare tax). Your employees can then submit claims to be reimbursed for uninsured medical expenses, including their share of health insurance premiums, if applicable. Reimbursements are tax-free. In effect, the employee is able to pay for out-of-pocket medical expenses with pretax dollars, up to the amount contributed to the employee's HRA account. 

Since your company must pay for all HRA contributions, this arrangement only saves money when it's combined with a much-less-generous employee health insurance program. The idea is that your company's health insurance costs will be drastically reduced, which allows you to return some of the cost savings to employees in the form of HRA contributions.

Basic cost-reduction strategy: First, switch your health insurance plan to one which greatly reduces your company's premium costs, which of course, means it provides less benefits to employees. Then, return a portion of the savings to employees via the tax-favored HRA arrangement.

Conclusion: Finally, note that employers will face a wide array of responsibilities and requirements under the PPACA. Your employee benefits adviser can help you explore the options available to your business.



Congratulations to the graduating class of 2019! As soon as a new graduate switches his or her tassel to the other side of the cap, it's time to plan for the future — and there's more to do than finding a good-paying job. Smart financial planning in the first few years after graduation can make a big difference in the years ahead. Here are five tips to help new grads prosper. Smart financial planning in the first few years after graduation can make a big difference in the years ahead. Here are five tips to help new grads prosper.

1. Make (and Follow) a Budget

You don't have to be an economics major to know that you shouldn't spend more than what you earn. However, if you really want to get ahead, do an inventory of your income and expenses. Differentiate needs from wants. For example, eating is a necessity, but eating out at restaurants should only be an occasional splurge.  

When drawing up your budget, figure out how much you need to live on. Give yourself an "allowance" for discretionary items and set a monthly savings goal. Beware: You don't want to overextend yourself and then live paycheck to paycheck.

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This can cause stress if you unexpectedly lose your job, become disabled or incur a major medical bill or car repair. Allocate a predetermined amount from each paycheck to go directly to a separate savings account. By keeping your savings separate, you won't be tempted to spend that amount on discretionary items, like a new jacket, concert tickets or a trip to Europe.

As a rule of thumb, you should have a "rainy day fund" of three to six months of net take-home pay. If an emergency happens, you'll be grateful for your savings.

2. Build Your Credit

Following a budget doesn't mean you have to live an austere lifestyle. It should include a little "mad money" for fun and for discretionary spending, such as vacations, dining out, pets, clothing and personal pampering. Credit cards can be a convenient way to pay for these items and track the expenditures. Plus, credit cards often accrue rewards points that can be redeemed in the future.

Most college students already have a credit card in their names. If you don't have a card yet, sign up for one immediately and pay the charges on time every month. Doing so puts you on the road to establishing a solid credit score, which will come in handy when you apply for a car loan or mortgage.

Never let your credit card balances spiral out of control. If you continue to pay off your balance every month, you'll avoid high interest charges on outstanding amounts.

You can also establish credit by:

  • Renting an apartment or home (instead of living with your parents),

  • Paying monthly bills (such as utilities, phone and cable Internet), and

  • Buying or leasing a vehicle.

Another financially savvy way to save money and build credit is to take advantage of interest-free financing offers on large purchases. These are often available for furniture, electronics and major appliances. But there's a catch: Pay off the balance in full before the deal expires or you'll likely incur high interest charges going back to the date of purchase.

3. Save for Retirement

How soon should new grads start saving for retirement? The sooner, the better. So, when you start your full-time job, take advantage of any employer retirement program as soon as you're eligible. If you're lucky, your employer might also contribute funds to your retirement up to a predetermined matching limit.

Most employers allow workers to participate in a qualified retirement plan, such as a SEP or 401(k) plan. These programs allow you to contribute pretax dollars to the account and allow them to grow, tax free, until you withdraw funds during retirement. You also may supplement your company's plan with IRAs and other tax-favored retirement accounts and investments.

4. Find a Place to Live

Deciding where to live is tied to many variables, including your job, family and personal preferences. But finances are the top consideration.

Depending on where you live and how much you earn, you probably can't move into your dream home right away. This is especially true if you work in a high-cost area. For instance, the cost of a studio apartment in a major city could be the same or even more than that of a 3-bedroom, single-family home out in the country.

Be realistic about how much you can afford. As a rule of thumb, you generally can spend up to a third of your monthly net pay on housing. If your starting income is modest, you may have to pay a higher percentage of your take-home pay.

When you have enough money for a down payment, consider buying a condominium, townhouse or single-family home. Interest rates are currently near historic lows. Plus, home ownership still offers tax benefits, especially if you expect to itemize deductions on your tax return after a purchase.

Warning: The Tax Cuts and Jobs Act (TCJA) limits itemized deductions for mortgage interest and property taxes for homeowners for 2018 through 2025. The state and local tax (SALT) limit is most likely to affect taxpayers in states with high tax rates and/or those who have significant taxable income.  

Other options, such as sharing an apartment with a roommate, may allow you to save more money until you can afford a place of your own. Alternatively, if you can, you might live with your parents for a while and accumulate even more savings until you're ready to move out.

5. Get Your Wheels

Depending on where you live and work, a vehicle may be a necessity or a discretionary purchase if you can get from place to place by walking, bicycling or using public transportation. Often, recent grads can't afford their dream cars right away. So, some may lease; others choose an economical vehicle that they can finance at a reasonable interest rate. To facilitate a car loan application, follow these steps:

  • Check your credit to ensure that you're entitled to a favorable rate.

  • Obtain quotes for loans. Get at least three rates at banks, credit unions and car dealerships.

  • Find a willing co-signer, such as a parent or grandparent, if your credit rating is subpar or you haven't established any credit yet.

If you end up financing through a dealership, mainly because it's convenient, you may decide to pay off the original loan rate later with a loan at a lower rate. If you choose this path, make sure the original loan doesn't include any prepayment penalties.

When budgeting for a new or used vehicle, remember that expenditures extend beyond the original purchase price. That is, you'll have to pay for auto insurance, gas, maintenance and repairs. These costs can quickly add up — and may eat away at your savings.

Need Help?

From credit scores and retirement to housing and transportation, there are a lot of major decisions to make soon after graduation. Fortunately, your financial advisors can mentor you as you enter the workforce and later as you progress in your career and personal life.


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If your family business operates as a C corporation, watch out for double taxation whenever you withdraw cash from the company. If the corporation has current or accumulated earnings and profits, the IRS generally considers payments to shareholders to be taxable dividends -- unless there's proof they were for another purpose (such as compensation for services or payments on a loan to the company).

The problem: Dividends mean double taxation. Your corporation gets taxed once on the income that produces the dividend and you get taxed again upon receiving it. Fortunately, there are strategies to prevent double taxation. Here are five to consider.

1. Include Third-Party Debt in the Corporation's Capital Structure

Occasionally, your company may need cash to pay for capital improvements or to finance growing levels of receivables and inventory. You generally have two choices. You can inject your own cash into the company or arrange for the company to borrow the money from a third-party lender. From a tax perspective, it's usually better to go the loan route. Why? There's less chance you'll need to withdraw double-taxed dividends later on because you have less of your own cash tied up in the business.

Tip: Be sure third-party loans are taken out in the corporation's name and not in your name. If you borrow personally and then contribute the loan proceeds to the company's capital, you may be forced to withdraw taxable dividends later on to pay the interest and principal on the personal loan.

2. Don't Contribute Capital -- Make Company Loans Instead

Let's say you and the other shareholders have more than enough cash to personally fund your family C corporation's growing capital needs. In that case, it's generally wise to include debt in the company's capital structure (as opposed to contributing more equity capital). Arrange for the debt to be owed to you and other shareholders personally, rather than to a third-party lender. This way, you'll receive taxable interest payments on the loan without double taxation because your corporation receives an offsetting interest expense deduction. You'll also collect tax-free principal payments on the loan. In contrast, if you make a capital contribution and then need to withdraw cash from the business later on, the withdrawals may effectively be double taxed.

3. Charge Your Corporation for Guaranteeing its Debt

As a shareholder of your family C corporation, you may be required to guarantee company debt. When this happens, consider charging the company a fee. You deserve to be compensated for issuing a guarantee that puts your personal assets at risk. (The guarantee fee is a deductible expense for the company.) Of course, you are taxed on the fee you receive and it must be reasonable, but double taxation is avoided because the company gets an offsetting deduction. You can continue charging the fee as long as the guarantee remains in force. (Source: Tulia Feedlot, Inc. v. U.S.,Ct. Cl. 1982)

Tip: Corporate minutes should reflect that you demanded a guarantee fee.

4. Lease Assets to the Company

It's generally not a good idea for your family C corporation to own assets that are likely to appreciate in value. Why? If the company later sells an appreciated asset and distributes the profit to you, it may be treated as a double-taxed dividend.

A smarter tax alternative is to keep personal ownership of business assets that are expected to appreciate (such as real estate). Then, lease the assets to your C corporation. If other family members are also shareholders, set up a partnership or LLC to own the assets and lease them to the company. The payments are a deductible expense for the corporation so cash comes to you in the form of lease payments, without double taxation.

For you personally, the lease payments are taxable income, but you may be able to claim offsetting deductions for depreciation or amortization, interest expense on mortgaged assets, property taxes and so forth. Even better, if the asset is eventually sold for a profit, it won't be hit with double taxation.

5. Collect Generous Company-Paid Salary and Perks

Two more ways to avoid double taxation are with:

  • Salary and bonus paid to you as a shareholder-employee of your family C corporation.

  • Company-paid fringe benefits provided to you as a shareholder-employee.

As long as the salary, bonus and benefits represent reasonable compensation for your services, the company can deduct them as business expenses. Therefore, double taxation is avoided. Plus, some company-paid benefits are tax-free to you (such as contributions to a qualified retirement plan and health insurance coverage).

Beware: When a shareholder-employee receives a generous package of salary, bonuses and benefits from a closely held corporation, the IRS might claim the compensation is unreasonably high. The tax agency can then argue that excess amounts are actually disguised dividends subject to double taxation.



Saving for retirement on a tax-advantaged basis should be on nearly everyone's financial "to do" list. Making contributions to a Roth IRA is one tax-wise way to save, because you can take withdrawals after age 59 1/2 that are free from federal income tax, assuming you've had at least one Roth account open for more than five years. Of course, Roth contributions are nondeductible, but they are valuable because you reap tax savings on the back end of the deal. 

However, if you're self-employed and fairly affluent, you may have dismissed the idea for two reasons:

1. You figure your income is too high to qualify for Roth contributions. 

2. You figure a Roth IRA is not that attractive because you believe you're in a higher tax bracket now than you'll be in during retirement. Instead, you make maximum deductible contributions to a traditional tax deferred retirement arrangement such as a simplified employee pension (SEP) plan, solo 401(k), or a defined contribution or defined benefit Keogh plan.

In this article, we'll examine why both assumptions may be wrong and why a Roth IRA is a smart way to build a substantial federal-income-tax-free retirement fund -- even if you have another retirement plan.

Think Your Income Is Too High? You May Be Wrong

It's true that the ability to make Roth IRA contributions is phased out, or completely eliminated, if your modified adjusted gross income (MAGI) exceeds certain levels. For 2018, the phase-outs start at the amounts listed below. MAGI is the adjusted gross income (AGI) amount reported on the bottom of page one of your Form 1040 with certain add-backs that may or may not apply in your situation.

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At first glance, these figures do make it look like a self-employed person with a robust income is unlikely to be eligible for contributions. But take another look.

A self-employed individual's modified adjusted gross income is likely to be considerably lower than the MAGI of another person who is in roughly equivalent circumstances and who is an employee. Reason: Successful self-employed taxpayers usually have hefty deductions for:

  • Certain expenses incurred in the business (such as deductions for rent, an office in the home or a computer system).

  • Contributions to a tax-deferred retirement plan (typically, a SEP, a defined contribution Keogh plan or a solo 401(k) plan).

  • Health insurance premiums.

  • The write-off for 50% of self-employment tax.

These deductions, along with others, are available to self-employed people and are subtracted in arriving at MAGI. Therefore, a self-employed person can have relatively high gross income from his or her business while having a much lower MAGI.

Bottom Line: Many self-employed individuals qualify for Roth IRA contributions without even realizing it.

Think a Deductible Plan is the Only Way to Go? You Could be Wrong

Clearly, it's a good idea to deduct contributions to a tax-deferred retirement plan (such as a SEP) set up for your self-employed business. However, that doesn't necessarily mean such contributions are preferable to contributing the same amounts to a Roth IRA. The best way to evaluate the issue in your situation is to look at two assumptions:


Assumption #1: You will always take the tax savings from making a deductible retirement plan contribution and either invest the money in a taxable retirement savings account or use the money to make a bigger deductible retirement plan contribution. 

Assumption #2: You expect to be in a lower tax bracket during your retirement years, which means you're generally well advised to make a deductible contribution to a tax-deferred retirement plan, instead of a Roth IRA.

In real life, though, you may not be disciplined enough to follow through with the first assumption. And the second assumption can also be problematic when you consider the federal budget deficit and politics. If it turns out that you will actually pay higher tax rates during your retirement years because tax rates go up, you'll wish you had made Roth contributions when you had the chance.

Key Point: Even if both of the above assumptions are true, you should still make Roth IRA contributions if you have cash left over after making the maximum deductible contributions to a tax-deferred retirement plan. In other words, don't just do one or the other. Contribute to both!


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Small business owners who are trying to build up their companies typically can't afford to pay generous executive-level salaries. But the idea of giving away company stock is also usually unappealing, unless the game plan is to take the company public within a few years. 

A middle ground is provisionally granting one or both of these alternate forms of ownership: 

  • Phantom equity units (PEUs), which represent an economic interest whose value is equivalent to a share of the company's stock — but isn't actually stock, or 

  • Equity appreciation rights (EARs), which are the equivalent of a stock option whose value is determined by the increase in the value of the company's stock after the date the EAR is granted. 

Caution: Like stock options, EARs can become worthless if the value of your company and its stock declines. Because of that risk, and the fact that the employees' holding gains value only if your holdings do, you might be inclined to be more generous with EARs than PEUs. 

Non-Qualified Plans 

Phantom stock-based arrangements are non-qualified plans, which means they're not governed by the Employee Retirement Income Security Act which regulates "qualified" plans such as 401(k)s and profit-sharing arrangements. Non-qualified plans also give you a lot of flexibility in how they are set up. But the flip side is that the tax and security features aren't quite as attractive.   

Note: Non-qualified plans are subject to Section 409(a) of the Internal Revenue Code, which covers, among other issues, the timing of deferrals and distributions. 

You would only want to grant PEUs or EARs to managers who you have full confidence in and want to keep on board for the long haul. Plus, the recipient should be someone who is privy to all the financial ins and outs of your company. 

The Details 

Here are some key features of PEUs and EARs: 

  • Distribution timing. You can distribute PEUs and EARs whenever you want, but annual distributions are typical.

  • Conditions. You can decide yearly whether to grant any PEUs and EARs, and how many. Although they're intended as long-term compensation and they aren't a substitute for an annual incentive bonus, you can vary the grants based on the company's financial performance.

  • Vesting. You can (and most companies do) establish a vesting schedule that delays the time when actual ownership of the PEUs or EARs is deemed to occur. Retirement plans use a similar schedule for vesting, which is generally based on time. A vesting schedule for PEUs or EARs may be based on performance metrics of the company or the executives involved.

  • Payout timing. In keeping with the goal of making grantees think like owners, PEUs and EARs typically aren't paid out until the executives reach retirement age, or after a relatively long period of service, for example,15 or 20 years. However, some circumstances could trigger a payout obligation. Among such potential triggers are the sale of the company or change of control, termination of the senior manager "without cause" or the inability of the manager to work, such as becoming disabled.

  • Benefit forfeiture. You can stipulate that the grantee forfeits accumulated PEUs and EARs for such reasons as a termination for cause or violation of a non-compete agreement.

  • Tax treatment. The company takes a tax deduction when cash payouts are made and the executives are taxed on the amounts as ordinary income.

  • Stock valuation. This is an area where you have flexibility. You could do an annual appraisal or choose a formula such as a multiple of earnings before interest, taxes, depreciation and amortization — including a rolling average to smooth out upward or downward spikes. You could even have your board of directors make a good faith estimate every time PEUs and EARs are granted. But the more predictable the formula, the more tangible the benefit will appear to grantees, and thus the more motivational.

  • Funding. The better your company performs, the larger the ultimate cash payment you'll need to fulfill your end of the bargain. But because these are nonqualified plans, you can't salt away funds every year in a trust that's tax-sheltered and impervious to the claims of creditors. Also, even without creditors to worry about, you'll need to be able to have plenty of cash on hand to make the payouts. And for PEUs and EARs to be motivational, their recipients will need to be confident that they'll ultimately get their payout. Certain insurance contracts and a "Rabbi trust" can help to mitigate the funding issue to some degree. Ask your insurance advisor for details about this specific tax-deferred, irrevocable trust, which is similar to a 403(b) plan. 

As you can see, phantom equity programs give you a lot of flexibility. And that's a good thing, because what makes sense both in terms of the plan design itself, and how generous you need to be to provide the necessary motivation, will vary from one company to the next. 

Different Strokes 

Keep in mind that not every highly valued top manager will be motivated in the same way. The prospect of a big future payout based on your company's financial success could be enticing and inspiring to one executive and not so much to another. 

Finally, if you launch a phantom equity program, you aren't obligated to keep it going forever. If it doesn't seem to be working, you can always pull the plug, although you'll still be contractually obligated to deliver on any future payout grantees are already vested in. 

Talk to a specialist in non-qualified executive compensation for a more in-depth briefing on phantom equity, as well as alternative motivational pay systems.



It's almost Tax Day! But don't despair; there still may be time to make some moves that will save taxes for your 2018 tax year. Here are five tax-saving ideas to consider. 

1. Choose to Deduct State and Local Sales Taxes 

If you live in a jurisdiction with low or no personal income tax or you owe little or nothing to the state and local income tax collectors, you might consider deducting state sales taxes instead of state income taxes.


However, this option only applies if you have enough itemized deductions to exceed your allowable standard deduction. (See "Itemizing vs. Taking the Standard Deduction" at right.) If you can benefit from choosing the sales tax option, you have two options to calculate your allowable sales tax deduction:

  • Add up the actual sales tax amounts from 2018 receipts, or

  • Use the amount from IRS tables based on your income, family size and state of residence.

You can deduct the larger of these two amounts. But remember, your deduction for all state and local taxes (including property taxes and income or sales taxes) is limited to only $10,000 (or $5,000 for married people who file separate returns).

Important: If you use the IRS tables, you can add on actual sales tax amounts from major purchases. Examples include purchases of motor vehicles (including motorcycles, off-road vehicles, and RVs), boats, aircraft and home improvements. In other words, you can deduct actual sales taxes for these major purchases on top of the predetermined amount from the IRS table.

2. Claim an Itemized Deduction for Medical Costs

If you itemize deductions for 2018, you can potentially claim a deduction for qualifying medical expenses, including premiums for private health insurance coverage and premiums for Medicare health insurance.

The catch is that your total qualifying medical expenses must exceed 7.5% of your adjusted gross income (AGI) for the 2018 tax year. For 2019, the deduction threshold is scheduled to rise to 10% of AGI unless Congress extends the 7.5%-of-AGI deal.

Key Point: If you're self-employed or an S corporation shareholder-employee, you can probably claim an above-the-line deduction for your health insurance premiums, including Medicare premiums. In this case, you don't need to itemize to get the tax-saving benefit of deducting health insurance premiums.

3. Make a Deductible HSA Contribution

If you had qualifying high-deductible health insurance coverage last year, you can make a deductible contribution to a Health Savings Account (HSA) of up to $3,450 for self-only coverage or up to $6,900 for family coverage. For 2018, a high-deductible policy is defined as one with a deductible of at least $1,350 for self-only coverage or $2,700 for family coverage.

If you're eligible to make an HSA contribution for last year, the deadline to open an account and make a deductible contribution for your 2018 tax year is generally April 15, 2019. However, for taxpayers in Massachusetts and Maine, the deadline is April 17 due to holidays. (April 15 is Patriots' Day in Maine and Massachusetts; April 16 is Emancipation Day in Washington, D.C., where the IRS is located.)

The write-off for HSA contributions is an above-the-line deduction. That means you can take it even if you don't itemize. In addition, this privilege isn't phased out based on your income level. Even billionaires can contribute to an HSA if they have qualifying high-deductible health insurance coverage and meet the other eligibility requirements. 

4. Make a Deductible IRA Contribution

If you qualify and haven't yet made a deductible traditional IRA contribution for the 2018 tax year, you can do so between now and April 15 and claim the resulting write-off on your 2018 return. Qualifying taxpayers can potentially make a deductible contribution of up to $5,500 or up to $6,500 if they're 50 or older as of December 31, 2018. If you're married, your spouse can also make a deductible IRA contribution.  

However, there are a few caveats. You must have enough 2018 earned income to equal or exceed your IRA contributions for the tax year. If you're married, either you or your spouse (or both) can provide the necessary earned income. In addition, deductible IRA contributions are phased out based on your income level and participation in tax-favored retirement plans last year. (See "Ground Rules for Deductible IRA Contributions" below.)

5. Make Charitable Donations from Your IRA to Replace Taxable RMDs

After reaching age 70½, you can make cash donations to IRS-approved charities out of your IRA. These qualified charitable distributions (QCDs) aren't like garden-variety charitable donations. You can't claim itemized deductions for them, but that's OK. The tax-free treatment of QCDs equates to a deduction, because you'll never be taxed on those amounts.    

If you inherited an IRA from a deceased original account owner and you're at least 70½, you can use the QCD strategy with the inherited account, too. 

There's a $100,000 limit on total QCDs each year. But if you and your spouse both have IRAs set up in your respective names, each of you is entitled to a separate $100,000 annual QCD limit.  

QCDs taken from traditional IRAs count as distributions for purposes of the required minimum distribution (RMD) rules. Therefore, you can arrange to donate all or part of your annual RMD amount (up to the $100,000 limit) that you would otherwise be forced to receive and pay taxes on.

There's still time to implement the QCD strategy for the 2018 tax year if you turned 70½ last year and haven't yet taken your initial IRA RMD. You have until April 1 of the year after you turn 70½ to take your first RMD. If you miss the April 1 deadline, you'll face a 50% penalty on any shortfall.

Important: If you take your first RMD on or before April 1, 2019, you also must take another RMD for the 2019 tax year by December 31 of this year. In this situation, not taking advantage of the QCD option to fulfill your 2018 and 2019 RMD obligations would mean having to take two taxable RMDs this year. However, if you use the QCD strategy, you can replace those taxable RMDs with tax-free QCDs.

Act Fast

These are some of the more widely available last-minute tax-saving maneuvers that you should consider before Tax Day. Contact your tax advisor to determine whether these or any other last-minute strategies might work for your specific situation.




Did you know that there are more millionaires in the United States than ever before? Recently, I had the opportunity to read Chris Hogan's latest book "Everyday Millionaires: How Ordinary People Built Extraordinary Wealth-and How You Can Too". In the book, Chris Hogan destroys millionaire myths that are seemingly keeping everyday people from achieving financial independence.

You don't have to inherit family assets or have a high paying job. In fact, most millionaires have achieved their wealth through ordinary tools, discipline and determination.

If you are looking to be a better steward of your personal cash flow or know of someone that could benefit from an easy to understand plan, check out "Everyday Millionaires". – Rusty Fulling


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Financing a family-run enterprise can bring out the worst in some people. So handling the transactions carefully can go a long way toward keeping the peace.

Common sources of financing family firms can include personal savings, credit cards, home equity loans, second mortgages and personal loans -- sometimes from relatives not directly involved in the business.

Here are some financing considerations for family businesses:

1. Plan the financing with your spouse and other relatives involved. This includes the type of financing, repayment schedules and the realistic expected returns from the business.

2. If you borrow from a family member, put the agreement in writing to ensure the repayment schedule is understood, to help secure tax benefits and to promote family harmony.

3. Weigh the charges and risks of various loans: For example, rates are higher when you borrow against a credit card than on a home equity loan, but you don't risk foreclosure on your property.

4. Investigate taking out a loan in the company's name. The rates might be a little higher, there's more paperwork and the qualifications are more rigid, but it helps establish credit for the business, makes it easier to borrow in the future and eliminates strain on the family's finances.

5. If you borrow from traditional lenders or a government agency, such as the Small Business Administration, keep in mind that they insist that business and family finances are kept separate. The IRS also demands this.

Like all lenders, family lenders expect a return on their money. This could come in the form of increased equity in the company. Or it could involve principal and interest payments from the business back to the family member. In either case, keep written documentation. This protects the company at tax time and helps alleviate questions about future payments as the business expands beyond the family. In addition, documentation is important if you seek additional funds from traditional lenders or the government.

Tax Consequences

Family loans must be properly structured for several reasons:

  • The lender must charge an interest rate the IRS considers adequate or there can be negative tax consequences.

  • If the business never pays the lender back, the lender can claim a bad debt deduction. First, a good faith attempt to collect must be made. (Under the tax code, business bad debts are more advantageous than personal bad debts.)

  • If a loan isn't properly documented and the lender is audited, the IRS may say the family loan was a gift and disallow a bad debt deduction. And there could be problems because a gift tax return was filed.

You Might Not Want Funds From Family Members If. . .

  • You qualify for other financing.Higher interest rates may be a small price to pay to maintain independence in the family.

  • It involves a big sacrifice. Be aware of relatives' capabilities and take money only if they won't be hurt by a failure.

  • There's already friction in the family.

These sources can cause the success or failure of the business and put family finances in jeopardy.

Assuming your family business is a success, there shouldn't be any major problems with family loans. However, let's say the business falters and your spouse is providing income for the family. You wind up supporting the business rather than the other way around.

This can work for a while, but if the money-losing venture can't eventually support itself, you need to answer some tough questions:

  • Is the problem temporary? For example, does the business need more time to become stable or is it suffering from a slump in the economy?

  • Is the problem permanent, perhaps the result of unrealistic business expectations or long-term market changes, such as the failure of major customers?

  • What changes can you make to improve cash flow and profits?

In the above scenarios, your accountant can help determine financing alternatives for family-run businesses.



Q. An employer asks: "I want to set up an 'Employee of the Month' program, but I don't know where to start. How do I go about doing this?"

A. Start with the things you need to consider and, with your answers, decide on what you will do. Here are questions to consider:

  • What's motivating you to want to have an employee of the month program? What do you want to accomplish? If your reason is that you think it's a good idea or because a competitor is doing it, that's not good enough. What are the specific benefits to your organization if you have a program? If you can't define specific benefits, why waste time and money on this?

  • How many employees would be eligible for the award? Are they in one location or more than one? How many locations? Will you have an employee-of-the-month at each location? Will you have a winner in each department?

  • Which employees will be eligible? Only employees in some departments? Only the nonexempt (usually the hourly-paid) employees? All employees except top management?

  • Who will select the winner? Will you have employees nominate candidates? Who will vote on them? Who will make the final selection? Will a team of management people make the selection? Will the top executive make the selection?

If one of your purposes is to encourage employees to improve their performance or the quality of their work, consider having employees recognize coworkers who exhibit outstanding performance or who "go beyond the call of duty."

You could give employees outstanding service certificates or thank you memos they would fill in with a coworker's name, the reason for giving the certificate or memo, and the date. The employee or employees with the most certificates or memos in a given month would be the winner or winners for that month.

  • What criteria/standards will you use to select the winner?

  • What is the form of recognition you will use? The typical recognition is a plaque on the wall with the employee's photo and/or name, or a paper certificate presented at a meeting of employees. An award also could be, or include, cash or a gift.

Here are some characteristics to look for in a winning "Employee of the Month." They are adapted from guidelines used in a program at Stanford University:

  • The employee demonstrates excellence in performance and customer service, actively builds partnership with colleagues, and contributes new ideas for the benefit of the University.

  • The employee is dedicated to accomplishment, is venturesome, takes responsibility and gets things done.

  • The employee is committed to people, and involves, challenges and supports others.The employee is enthusiastic.

  • The employee inspires others with a positive attitude, is energetic, motivates others into action, is friendly, and goes out of his or her way for others.

Q. Will an "Employee of the Month" award promote competition vs. cooperation and teamwork?

A. It is more likely to promote competition than cooperation. You have to decide which it is that you want: competition between individuals or cooperation within a team. An "Employee of the Month" program works, for example, to motivate individual sales people to excel. It can be counter-productive in a team environment.

If you want to use this type of award, consider offering it to teams or departments. Such as a "Team of the Month" Award. You'll have less resentment against the winners if the employees are on teams, or in departments, competing with other teams or departments.

Q. Is it advisable to have staff or management pick the award winners?

A. The answer depends on your current workplace culture and the kind of culture you want to encourage. Where does the power reside now? How much authority and responsibility do you place with employees? Do you want to encourage employees to accept more authority and responsibility? Answers to these questions will help you decide.

In addition, if you choose to go with a "Team of the Month" Award, it's pretty difficult to have the employees select or vote for the winning team.

One approach some employers use in selecting winners is to have the customers or clients do the voting. Typically, in this approach, the focus is on delivering quality customer service or achieving high customer satisfaction. Employees give the customer or client little ballots or coupons on which the customer or client can write in the name of the employee who gives them quality service or high satisfaction. The employee or employees who receive the most "votes" from the customers or clients in a given period are the winners.

Q. What are some negatives associated with "Employee of the Month" programs?

A. Following are three reasons this type of well-intentioned recognition program becomes counter-productive or fails:

  • The monthly award becomes routine. Employees eventually ignore it.

  • Employees come to view the monthly winners as the recipients of favoritism, even as the "boss's pets." If the Employee of the Month isn't selected by some objective system or measurement, in time employees see the selection of the monthly winners as the result of favoritism by someone in management.

  • The program eventually damages employees' morale. When the monthly winners do not actually deserve the recognition, the program can damage the morale of other employees.


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Q.  Our company maintains a premium-only cafeteria plan (POP) under which employees who elect company-sponsored major medical coverage can pay their share of the premiums with pre-tax dollars. We are thinking of amending our cafeteria plan to add some other benefits. We know that health flexible spending accounts (FSAs) and dependent care assistance programs (DCAPs) can be offered under a cafeteria plan, but what other benefits can we offer?

A.  Employer-sponsored group major medical coverage, health FSAs, and DCAPs are the most common cafeteria plan benefits. Other common benefits that can be offered under a cafeteria plan include the following:

  • health savings account contributions;

  • group-term life insurance on the life of an employee (although the cost of coverage in excess of $50,000, less any amount paid after-tax, is includible in the employee's gross income);

  • long-term or short-term disability coverage;

  • coverage under other arrangements that qualify as accident or health plans under the law (for example, employer-sponsored group dental or vision coverage); and

  • purchase or sale of paid time off (PTO), for example, vacation, sick, or personal days.

Of course, various rules and issues may need to be addressed before offering these benefits under the cafeteria plan. For example, specific requirements must be met when the purchase or sale of PTO is offered as a benefit under a cafeteria plan. And cafeteria plans generally cannot be used to pay or reimburse premiums for individual insurance policies that provide major medical or other non-excepted coverage. Reimbursing premiums for other types of individual insurance coverage raises issues under ERISA, COBRA, and other laws.



Health care costs have skyrocketed over the last few decades. Fortunately, health savings accounts (HSAs) allow qualifying individuals to pay for certain medical expenses with pretax dollars. Here is what you need to know to put an HSA to work for you. 

Healthy Growth

Over the last decade, many people have jumped on the HSA bandwagon. HSA assets exceeded $51 billion as of June 30, 2018, according to a recent survey conducted by HSA investment provider Devenir. That's an increase of 20.4% compared to the previous year.

In addition, the total number of HSAs grew to 23.4 million as of June 30, 2018, up 11.2% compared to a year earlier. Devenir projects the number of HSA accounts to increase to 29 million by the end of 2020 with assets approaching $75 billion.

The Basics

With HSAs, individuals must take more responsibility for their health care costs, instead of relying on an employer or the government. The upside is that HSAs offer some tax benefits.

Under the Affordable Care Act (ACA), health insurance plans are categorized as Bronze, Silver, Gold or Platinum. Bronze plans — which have the highest deductibles and least generous coverage — are the most affordable. Platinum plans have no deductibles and cover much more, but they're also significantly more expensive.

In many cases, the ACA has led to premium increases, even for those with less generous plans. However, these less generous plans also might make you eligible to open and contribute to a tax-advantaged HSA.    

For the 2018 tax year, you could make a tax-deductible HSA contribution of up to $3,450 if you have qualifying self-only coverage or up to $6,900 if you have qualifying family coverage (anything other than self-only coverage). For 2019, the maximum contributions are $3,500 and $7,000, respectively. If you're age 55 or older as of year end, the maximum contribution increases by $1,000.

To be eligible to contribute to an HSA, you must have a qualifying high deductible health insurance policy and no other general health coverage. For 2018, a high deductible health plan was defined as one with a deductible of at least $1,350 for self-only coverage or $2,700 for family coverage. For 2019, the minimum deductibles are the same. 

For 2018, qualifying policies must have had out-of-pocket maximums of no more than $6,650 for self-only coverage or $13,300 for family coverage. For 2019, the out-of-pocket maximums are $6,750 and $13,500, respectively.

Important note: For HSA eligibility purposes, high deductible health insurance premiums don't count as out-of-pocket medical costs. 

Deductible Contributions

If you're eligible to make an HSA contribution for the tax year in question, the deadline is April 15 of the following year (adjusted for weekends and holidays) to open an account and make a tax-deductible contribution for the previous year.

So, there's still time for an eligible individual to open an account and make a deductible contribution for 2018. The deadline for making 2018 contributions is April 15, 2019.

The write-off for HSA contributions is an "above-the-line" deduction. That means you can claim it even if you don't itemize.

In addition, the HSA contribution privilege isn't tied to your income level. Even billionaires can make deductible HSA contributions if they have qualifying high deductible health insurance coverage and meet the other eligibility requirements. 

Important note: Sole proprietors, partners, LLC members, and S corporation shareholder-employees are generally allowed to claim separate above-the-line deductions for their health insurance premiums, including premiums for high deductible health plans that make you eligible for HSA contributions.

HSAs in the Real World

To show the tax perks of HSAs, consider the following example: Albert and Angie are a married couple in their 30s. They're both self-employed, and both have separate HSA-compatible individual health insurance policies for all of 2019. Both policies have $2,000 deductibles.

For 2019, Albert and Angie can each contribute $3,500 to their respective HSAs and claim a total of $7,000 of write-offs on their 2019 joint return. If they're in the 32% federal income tax bracket, this strategy cuts their 2019 tax bill by $2,240 (32% × $7,000). Over 10 years, they'll save $22,400 in taxes, assuming they contribute $7,000 each year and remain in the 32% bracket.

Tax Treatment of Distributions

HSA distributions used to pay qualified medical expenses of the HSA owner, spouse and dependents are federal-income-tax-free. However, you can build up a balance in the account if contributions plus earnings exceed withdrawals for medical expenses. Any earnings are free from federal income tax unless you withdraw them for something other than qualified medical expenses.

So, if you're in very good health and take minimal or no distributions, you can use an HSA to build up a substantial medical expense reserve over the years, while earning tax-free income along the way. Unlike flexible spending accounts (FSAs), undistributed balances in HSAs are not forfeited at year end. They can accumulate in value, year after year. Thus, an HSA can function like an IRA if you stay healthy.

Even if you empty the account every year to pay medical expenses, the HSA arrangement allows you to pay those expenses with pretax dollars. But there are some important caveats to bear in mind:

  • HSA funds can't be used for tax-free reimbursements of medical expenses that were incurred before you opened the account.

  • If money is taken out of an HSA for any reason other than to cover qualified medical expenses, it will trigger a 20% penalty tax, unless you're eligible for Medicare.

If you still have an HSA balance after reaching Medicare eligibility age (generally age 65), you can drain the account for any reason without a tax penalty. If you don't use the withdrawal to cover qualified medical expenses, you'll owe federal income tax and possibly state income tax. But the 20% tax penalty that generally applies to withdrawals not used for medical expenses won't apply. There's no tax penalty on withdrawals after disability or death. 

Alternatively, you can use your HSA balance to pay uninsured medical expenses incurred after reaching Medicare eligibility age. If your HSA still has a balance when you die, your surviving spouse can take over the account tax-free and treat it as his or her own HSA, if he or she is named as the account beneficiary. In other cases, the date-of-death HSA balance must generally be included in taxable income on that date by the person who inherits the account.

For More Information

HSAs can provide a smart tax-saving opportunity for individuals with qualifying high deductible health plans. Contact us to help you set up an HSA or decide how much to contribute for 2019. And, remember, there's still time to make a deductible contribution for your 2018 tax year, if you're eligible. 


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I had to smile as my vehicle hit 220,000 miles this week.  Eighteen years ago, with title in hand, I drove this brand new truck right off of the new car lot.  It was the first vehicle that I had saved up and paid cash for.  While our family has bought and sold other vehicles since that time, we made a decision in 2001 not to make car payments a priority in our monthly budget.  

Paying cash rather than financing has been taught for years by budget experts like Larry Burkett, Ron Blue and Dave Ramsey.  Most likely they were taught by their grandmothers with the trusty envelope system which has been around for decades. The envelope system limits you to only spend the amount that is placed in the envelope. Advantages of using this system creates a sense of discipline and accountability with your spending, along with making it challenging to overspend.

Although it may be unpopular to wait and save in our "instant gratification" society, the absence of financing can truly free you up from the burden of debt.  One of my favorite quotes from Dave Ramsey says...

"If you will live like no one else, later you can live like no one else."

What small decisions are you making today to make a positive difference in your future? - Rusty Fulling


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The Fulling Management & Accounting team along with one of our clients, IntelligeneCG, had the opportunity to serve at the Kansas City Rescue Mission Men's Center this past weekend. Always such a humbling experience and a great reminder to "...continue to remember the poor." Gal 2:10


KCRM is a Christ-centered community offering freedom (from the past) & hope (for the future) to the poor and homeless, empowering them to reach their full potential. The community offers Relief Services, Recovery Services & Reentry Services.


Be a part of something you believe in that is bigger than yourself!


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One of the most effective and inexpensive ways of building employee loyalty is to hold regular outings and get-togethers. By holding staff gatherings, you build loyalty and form bonds outside the workplace. Plus, you get a major tax break.

You can hold a staff party at a restaurant or treat your entire staff and their families to a day at a local ball game or amusement park. Most places offer discount rates for groups.

When planning an event, here are four cues to keep the emphasis on fun:

Take it outside. Hold your outings away from the office, if possible. This creates a more relaxed atmosphere and lets staff members feel free to put work aside and just have a good time. They are more likely to bond if the focus is off the workplace.

Involve families. This lets everyone feel a part of the workplace community and opens the way for more personalized relationships. In addition, spouses and family members play a major role in employees' longevity with your company.

Make it enjoyable. Come up with a theme and hold a contest. For example, if you're going to a ballpark, the employee who can name the team's highest scoring player wins a baseball cap. Or if you're headed to the beach, a beach towel can be awarded to the family that comes up with the longest list of songs from Annette Funicello and Frankie Avalon movies.

Keep it regular. The more often you hold company-wide events, the more your staff members feel part of a community that works and plays together. Send out invitations at least a month before each outing and get everyone involved in a countdown.

By investing a little time and money in showing employees and their families a good time, you build loyalty that can help retain your staff.

Now, here's the tax bonus:  Under prior law, businesses could deduct 50% of the cost of its entertainment and meal expenses, with certain exceptions. For example, you could write off 100% of the cost of a company outing for employees, such as a 4th of July barbecue or company picnic. This special tax law provision wasn't touched by the 2017 Tax Cuts and Jobs Act. 

However, there has always been a catch to claim this tax break: You must invite the entire staff. In other words, you can't restrict the get-together to just the higher-ups. Inviting a few friends or family members won't jeopardize the deduction, but you can't write off the costs attributable to those social guests.


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18 weeks ago some of our Fulling Management & Accounting team joined up with World Visionto help provide clean water access for children and families in areas of Africa around Kenya. World Vision did an incredible job organizing the fundraising efforts and partnership with the Kansas City marathon.

Kelly Roney, her husband Brant, and Rusty Fulling from our team joined over 900 other World Vision volunteers to run in the Kansas City half / full marathon event this past weekend.

Through the marathon event, Team World Vision was able to raise over $800,000. This will provide over 17,000 people access the clean water. If you are looking for a great group to invest in, check out:


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Did you know nearly 1,000 children under age 5 die every day from diarrhea caused by contaminated water, poor sanitation, and improper hygiene? We believe the global water and sanitation crisis can be solved within our lifetimes.

Some of our staff and family members at Fulling Management & Accounting have joined up with Team World Vision to bring awareness to this crisis. On October 20th, we will be running in a half marathon to help provide life-changing clean water to children and communities in Africa. Yes, this will be my first attempt at a half-marathon. Needless to say, my muscles are already sore just thinking about it.

For every $50 raised, World Vision is able to provide clean water to 1 person. So far, our Kansas City World Vision team has raised almost $500,000 toward our $750,000 goal. That means life changing, clean water for over 10,000 people!   Click HERE to find out more on how to participate or donate.Thank you.   – Rusty Fulling


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For tax years starting in 2018, the Tax Cuts and Jobs Act (TCJA) provides new and improved tax incentives for buying new and used business equipment. But leasing still offers benefits for some taxpayers. Here are some important considerations when deciding whether to buy or lease equipment.

Pros of Buying

The primary advantage of owning fixed assets is that you're free to use them as you see fit. When you own equipment that won't become obsolete, you should get your money's worth from the purchase over time. This is especially true for assets — such as a desk or drill — that tend to have a long useful life and aren't affected by technology changes.

In addition, from a tax perspective, the Section 179 deduction and first-year bonus depreciation privileges can provide big tax savings in the first year an asset is placed in service. These tax breaks were dramatically enhanced by the TCJA — enough so, that you may be convinced to buy assets that your business might have leased in the past.

Sec. 179 expensing. This tax law provision provides a current deduction for the cost of qualified new or used business property that's placed in service in the tax year. The maximum Section 179 deduction has been doubled from $500,000 under prior law to $1 million under the TCJA for qualified property placed in service in tax years beginning in 2018. The Sec. 179 deduction is available for most types of equipment, ranging from heavy machinery to computers and desks. Software and qualified real property expenditures can also qualify for the Sec. 179 deduction privilege.

The Sec. 179 deduction is limited to the amount of a taxpayer's business income calculated before the deduction and is phased out if qualified asset additions exceed the phaseout threshold. The TCJA increased the phaseout threshold from $2.03 million for tax years beginning in 2017 to $2.5 million for tax years beginning in 2018. This increase provides plenty of leeway for most small businesses.

Bonus depreciation. A business can claim a first-year bonus depreciation deduction for the cost of qualified property, which includes most types of equipment used by small business owners. In fact, the same property may qualify for both the Sec. 179 deduction and bonus depreciation. If so, bonus depreciation is preferred for assets placed in service by December 31, 2022.

Under the TCJA, bonus depreciation has been extended to include used property. The amount of the deduction has also been doubled from 50% under prior law to 100% under the TCJA for qualified property placed in service from 2018 through 2022. For tax years starting in 2023, bonus depreciation deductions will be phased out based on the following schedule:

  • 80% for property placed in service in 2023,

  • 60% for property placed in service in 2024,

  • 40% for property placed in service in 2025, and

  • 20% for property placed in service in 2026.

Bonus depreciation is scheduled to expire at the end of 2026, unless Congress decides to extend it.

These two tax breaks can be a powerful combination: Many businesses will be able to write off the full cost of most equipment in the year it's purchased. Any remainder is eligible for regular depreciation deductions over IRS-prescribed schedules.

Important note: Other rules and restrictions may apply, including limits on annual deductions for vehicles and restrictions on "listed property" (such as TVs).

Cons of Buying

The primary downside of buying fixed assets is that you're generally required to pay the full cost upfront or in installments, although the Sec. 179 and bonus depreciation tax benefits are still available for property that's financed.

If you finance a purchase through a bank, a down payment of at least 20% of the cost is usually required. This could tie up funds and affect your credit rating.

Important note: If you decide to finance fixed asset purchases, be aware that the TCJA limits interest expense deductions (for businesses with more than $25 million in average annual gross receipts) to 30% of adjusted taxable income (ATI) for tax years starting in 2018. Any excess can be carried over indefinitely. In addition, when computing ATI for tax years beginning in 2022 and beyond, deductions for depreciation, amortization and depletion won't be added back. This transition rule could significantly increase ATI for a business, resulting in a lower interest expense deduction limitation after 2021. Be aware that this complicated provision is subject to several exceptions. Contact your tax advisor about your situation.

In addition, when you own an asset, you run the risk that it could quickly become outdated or obsolete. It may be difficult to unload the equipment at a reasonable price, not to mention the headache of trying to sell it. For example, if you buy computers costing $5,000 today, they could be worth only $1,000 or less in just three years.

Pros of Leasing

From a cash flow perspective, leasing can be more attractive than buying. But the tax benefits for leasing may not be as valuable. And you don't own equipment at the end of the lease term. So, if you want to replace the asset when the lease is up, you'll face the leasing vs. buying decision all over again. But this could be a good thing if an asset is likely to become obsolete by the end of the term.

The main advantage is the upfront cost savings. For example, if you lease equipment with a five-year useful life, the first-year expense may be only 20% of the total asset cost. Typically, you won't have to come up with a down payment for a leased asset (although there are exceptions, including some vehicle leases). In turn, the funds you retain by leasing an asset, rather than buying it, can be used for other purposes and to improve business cash flow.

Of course, your business is entitled to a tax deduction for annual lease payments, but you miss out on Sec. 179 and bonus depreciation deductions. Although there are some nuances, lease payments are generally tax deductible as "ordinary and necessary" business expenses. As with ownership of vehicles, annual deduction limits may apply.

Beyond taxes, leasing may be a more viable option for companies with questionable credit ratings, limited access to bank financing or limited cash reserves. And, in today's competitive leasing market, leases with favorable terms are common.

Important note: For many years, U.S. Generally Accepted Accounting Principles (GAAP) have provided a financial reporting incentive for certain types of leasing arrangements. See "Add New Accounting Rules to the Mix" at right. However, new accounting rules go into effect in 2019 for calendar-year public companies and 2020 for calendar-year private companies that bring leases to the lessee's balance sheet. So, lease obligations will show up as liabilities, similar to purchased assets that are financed with traditional bank loans.

Cons of Leasing

Leasing does have drawbacks, however. Over the long run, leasing an asset may cost you more than buying it, because you're continually renewing the lease or acquiring a new one. For example, a top-of-the-line computer that normally costs $5,000 might run you $200 a month over a three-year lease term, or $7,200. After all, leasing companies have to make profits, too.

Leasing also doesn't provide any buildup of equity. At the end of the lease term, you get nothing back, whereas buying might result in some return on a resale.

What's more, when you lease, you're generally locked in for the entire lease term. So, you're obligated to keep making lease payments even if you stop using the equipment. In the event the lease allows you to opt out before the term expires, you still may be forced to pay an early-termination fee.

Decision Time

When deciding whether to lease or buy a fixed asset, there are a multitude of factors to consider, with no universal "right" or "wrong" choice. With assistance from your tax and financial advisors, you can take the approach that best suits your circumstances.


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Many business ventures generate tax losses, especially in the first few years of operation or under adverse conditions. When can losses be deducted — and how much can you deduct in any given year? This article explains new limitations on the ability of individual taxpayers to deduct losses from pass-through business entities, including sole proprietorships, limited liability companies (LLCs) treated as sole proprietorships for tax purposes, partnerships, LLCs treated as partnerships for tax purposes and S corporations.

Old Rules

Before the Tax Cuts and Jobs Act (TCJA), an individual taxpayer's business losses could usually be fully deducted in the tax year when they arose. That was the result unless:

  • The passive loss rules or some other provision of tax law limited that favorable outcome, or

  • The business loss was so large that it exceeded taxable income from other sources, creating a so-called "net operating loss" (NOL).

Under prior law, you could carry back an NOL to the two preceding tax years or carry it forward for up to 20 tax years.

Current Rules

For 2018 through 2025, the TCJA changes the rules for deducting an individual taxpayer's business losses. Unfortunately, the changes aren't favorable.

If your business or rental activity generates a tax loss, things get complicated. First, the passive activity loss (PAL) rules may apply if it's a rental operation or you don't actively participate in the activity. In general, the PAL rules only allow you to deduct passive losses to the extent you have passive income from other sources, such as positive income from other business or rental activities or gains from selling them.

Passive losses that can't be currently deducted are suspended. That is, they're carried forward to future years until you either have sufficient passive income or sell the activity that produced the losses.

To make matters worse, after you've successfully cleared the hurdles imposed by the PAL rules, the TCJA establishes another hurdle: For tax years beginning in 2018 through 2025, you can't deduct an "excess business loss" in the current year.

An excess business loss is the excess of your aggregate business deductions for the tax year over the sum of:

  • Your aggregate business income and gains for the tax year, and

  • $250,000 or $500,000 if you are a married joint-filer.

The excess business loss is carried over to the following tax year and can be deducted under the rules for net operating loss (NOL) carryforwards. (See "Limits on Deducting NOLs" at right.)

Important: This new loss deduction rule applies after applying the PAL rules. So, if the PAL rules disallow your business or rental activity loss, you don't get to the new loss limitation rule.

Real-World Examples

To illustrate how these new rules work, consider Ed, an unmarried individual who owns rental real estate. In 2018, he has a $300,000 allowable loss from his rental properties (after considering the PAL rules). So, his excess business loss for the year is $50,000 ($300,000 – the $250,000 excess business loss threshold for an unmarried taxpayer).

Ed has no other business or rental activities, but he has $400,000 of income from other sources. Ed can deduct the first $250,000 of his rental loss against his income from other sources.

The $50,000 excess business loss is carried forward to Ed's 2019 tax year and treated as an NOL carryfoward to that year. Under the TCJA's revised NOL rules for 2018 and beyond, Ed can use an NOL carryforward to shelter up to 80% of his taxable income in the carryforward year.

If Ed's rental property loss for 2018 is $250,000 or less, he won't have an excess business loss, because the loss is below the $250,000 excess business loss limitation threshold for an unmarried taxpayer. So, he wouldn't be affected by the new loss limitation rule.

Alternatively, consider Fern and Fernando, a married joint-filing couple. In 2018, Fern has a $300,000 allowable loss from rental real estate properties (after considering the PAL rules).

Fernando runs a small startup business. He operates the business as a single-member limited liability company (LLC) that's treated as a sole proprietorship for tax purposes. For 2018, the business has a $100,000 loss.

Fern and Fernando have no other business or rental activities, but they have $550,000 of income from other sources. This couple doesn't have an excess business loss for the year, because their combined losses are $400,000, which is below the $500,000 excess business loss limitation threshold for a married joint-filing couple. So, they're unaffected by the new loss limitation rule. Therefore, they can use their $400,000 business loss to shelter income from other sources.

Practical Impact of New Loss Disallowance Rule

The rationale underlying the new loss limitation rule is to further restrict the ability of individual taxpayers to use current-year business losses (including losses from rental activities) to offset income from other sources, such as salary, self-employment income, interest, dividends and capital gains.

The practical impact is that your allowable current-year business losses can't offset more than $250,000 of income from such other sources or more than $500,000 for a married joint-filing couple.

The requirement that excess business losses must be carried forward as an NOL forces you to wait at least one year to get any tax benefit from those excess losses.

Rules for S Corporations, Partnerships and LLCs

For business losses passed through to individuals from S corporations, partnerships and LLCs that are treated as partnerships for tax purposes, the new excess business loss limitation rules apply at the owner level. In other words, each owner's allocable share of business income, gain, deduction or loss is passed through to the owner and reported on the owner's personal federal income tax return for the owner's tax year that includes the end of the entity's tax year.

To illustrate, consider Gerald and Gina, siblings who quit their jobs at the end of 2017 to start a flower shop. They operate the new business as an LLC that's treated as a 50/50 partnership for tax purposes. Gerald is single and Gina is a married joint-filer. They each invest $500,000 in the new enterprise.

The 2018 LLC tax return for the business reports a net loss of $700,000. Each owner is allocated a $350,000 loss. Neither owner has any income or losses from other business activities. But Gerald has $300,000 of income from a trust, and Gina's husband has $200,000 of salary income.

The excess business loss limitation rule is applied at the owner level. So, Gerald has an excess business loss of $100,000 from the LLC ($350,000 – the $250,000 excess business loss threshold for an unmarried taxpayer). For 2018, he can deduct $250,000 of the LLC loss (the amount up to the threshold) against his trust income. The $100,000 excess business loss is carried forward to his 2019 tax year as an NOL carryforward.

Gina, on the other hand, has no excess business loss from the LLC because her $350,000 loss is less than the $500,000 excess business loss limitation threshold for a married joint-filing taxpayer. For 2018, the first $200,000 of the LLC loss can be deducted against her husband's salary income. The remaining $150,000 loss from the LLC generates an NOL carryforward to her 2019 tax year.

Ask the Experts

There's a silver lining to the unfavorable loss rules: The new excess business loss limitation rules only apply to tax years beginning in 2018 through 2025, unless Congress decides to extend them. But, while they're around, the rules may cause some struggling business owners additional hardship when they can least afford it.

Are you expecting your business to generate a tax loss in 2018? If so, consult your tax advisor to determine whether you'll be affected by the new loss limitation rules.


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"Audit" is a word that can strike fear into the hearts of taxpayers.

However, the chances of an Internal Revenue Service audit aren't that high. In 2016, the IRS audited 0.7% of all individual tax returns.1

And being audited does not necessarily imply that the IRS suspects wrongdoing. The IRS states an audit is just a formal review of a tax return to ensure information is being reported according to current tax law and to verify that the information itself is accurate.

The IRS selects returns for audit using four main methods.2

  • Random Selection. Some returns are chosen at random based on the results of a statistical formula.
  • Information Matching. The IRS compares reports from payers — W2 forms from employers, 1099 forms from banks and brokerages, and others — to the returns filed by taxpayers. Those that don't match may be examined further.
  • Related Examinations. Some returns are selected for an audit because they involve issues or transactions with other taxpayers whose returns have been selected for examination.

There are a number of sound tax practices that may help reduce the chances of an audit.

  • Provide Complete Information. Among the most commonly overlooked information is missing Social Security numbers -- including those for any dependent children and ex-spouses.
  • Avoid Math Errors. When the IRS receives a return that contains math errors, it assesses the error and sends a notice without following its normal deficiency procedures.
  • Match Your Statements. The numbers on any W-2 and 1099 forms must match the returns to which they are tied. Those that don't match may be flagged for an audit.
  • Don't Repeat Mistakes. The IRS remembers those returns it has audited. It may check to make sure past errors aren't repeated.
  • Keep Complete Records. This won't reduce the chance of an audit, but it potentially may make it much easier to comply with IRS requests for documentation.

Audits Have Changed

Most audits don't involve face-to-face meetings with IRS agents or representatives. In 2015, the latest year for which data is available, 71% were actually conducted through the mail; only 29% involved face-to-face meetings.

Remember, the information in this material is not intended as tax or legal advice. It may not be used for the purpose of avoiding any federal tax penalties. Please consult legal or tax professionals for specific information regarding your individual situation.